Cost Method of Accounting for Investments
The cost method of accounting for investments is used to determine the profit and loss of any investment. Apart from that, this method is also used to compute the return on investment of a certain investment. To know more about this approach of accounting, read on...
Shashank Nakate
The specialty of cost method of accounting for investments is that, it gives us an idea of how much money is actually being invested, how much money is being earned as a return, and also the exact return over investment. This approach of accounting can be adopted for almost any kind of investment, such as mutual funds, investment into gold and silver, etc. This method is also used in the corporate and business world, in order to maintain records and accounts for the following:
 Investments into a partnership firm.
 Investment into subsidies companies and business
 Investments into specific contracts and agreements of a business.
Note: The word 'returns' that is mentioned in the following article implies the total amount of income derived from the investment. Principal amount is the total amount invested, less charges and fees as applicable in some cases.
Cash Statement and Cost Sheet
A statement presented in a simple and easytounderstand manner is the core of cost method of accounting. Unlike the statements of financial accounting method, which have credit and debit factions, the statements of cost accounting methods have just one faction. A general cash statement and cost sheet are the two primary types of cost accounting statements used to account for investments. We shall be taking a look at both formats in due course. It is a common convention to make one statement per investment, however, companies sometimes make one superseding or collective statement.
When it comes to cost accounting statements for investments, there are three major elements included in the statement:
 The first one is the total volume of money that you have invested. It is known as the 'principal amount' of investment.
 The second one is the total expenditure incurred to make the investment. This includes broker fees, taxes, loads, charges, etc. Note that, this element does not include any direct loss incurred in the investment, for example, the loss of market price of stock equity.
 The third element is basically the return which you have received after the lifecycle of the investment gets completed.
 Current realization cost is the total money which you would receive if you sell off your investment. This kind of element is usually used for investments such as gold, silver and stock equity, denoting the current market value.
 The next one is the return on investment which is a percentage, that indicates the percentage profit derived from the entire investment.
Cost Method of Accounting for Investments: Formats
Now to illustrate the two types of statements, the two aforementioned examples have been used. Take a look...
You can use the following formulas for the computation of the last 3 elements.
Cost Sheet for 10 Year Mutual Fund
Sr. No.  Particulars  Calculation  Amount 
1.  Total cost of buying one share of the fund less:

...  ... 
2.  Premium for 20012002 (add) Return for 20012002 
...  ... 
3.  Premium for 20022003 (add) Return for 20022003 
...  ... 
4.  Premium for 20032004 (add) Return for 20032004 
...  ... 
5.  Premium for 20042005 (add) Return for 20042005 
...  ... 
6.  Premium for 20052006 (add) Return for 20052006 
...  ... 
7.  Premium for 20062007 (add) Return for 20062007 
...  ... 
8.  Premium for 20072008 (add) Return for 20072008 
...  ... 
9.  Premium for 20082009 (add) Return for 20082009 
...  ... 
10.  Premium for 20092010 (add) Return for 20092010 
...  ... 
11.  Therefore total premiums  ...  ... 
12.  Therefore total returns  ...  ... 
13.  Therefore total return on Investment (%)  ...  ... 
14.  Therefore total rate of return  ...  ... 
15.  Therefore total profit  ...  ... 
You can use the following formulas for the computation of the last 3 elements.
1. Total Return on Investment (%): A.R (×) 100 ÷ A.I
where, A.R = total amount received back as returns and A.I = principal amount invested
where, A.R = total amount received back as returns and A.I = principal amount invested
2. Total Rate of Return:
A.R = A.I (×) number of years of the investment (×) R ÷ 100
where, R is the rate of return. In this case, you will need to substitute the remaining figures in the formula and then derive the 'R' figure, which is percentage return which you have received annually.
A.R = A.I (×) number of years of the investment (×) R ÷ 100
where, R is the rate of return. In this case, you will need to substitute the remaining figures in the formula and then derive the 'R' figure, which is percentage return which you have received annually.
3. Total Profit
Total profit is simply the total returns () total premiums.
Total profit is simply the total returns () total premiums.
Cash Statement for N.A.V Mutual Fund
Depending upon the situation and case of investment, you can apply any of the two methods and their respective statements. The first one works better for longterm investments, essentially the ones that exceed 12 months. The cash statement, on the other hand, works better for smaller, marketbased investments.
Sr. No.  Particulars  Amount 
1.  Total principal amount invested in mutual fund share (total cost of buying one share of the fund) (less) loads / charges / fees 
... 
2.  (add) Gain in net asset value  ... 
3.  (less) Loss of net asset value  ... 
4.  Withdrawal of mutual fund at NAV  ... 
5.  Return on investment (%)  ... 
6.  Total rate of return  ... 
7.  Total profit  ... 
Depending upon the situation and case of investment, you can apply any of the two methods and their respective statements. The first one works better for longterm investments, essentially the ones that exceed 12 months. The cash statement, on the other hand, works better for smaller, marketbased investments.